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Gastrointestinal disorders were resolved by treatment with esomeprazole and the remainder of adverse events resolved without further intervention or necessity to discontinue/interrupt deferasirox therapy. Creatinine levels did not change during the first year of treatment [mean?��?SD; 60��1?��?11��5?��mol/l at baseline vs. 61��0?��?10��6 ��mol/l at 12?months (P?=?0��725)]. #links# Elevated levels of creatinine compared to baseline were observed at the end of 24?months of treatment [mean?��?SD levels at 24?months, 69��8?��?15��9 ��mol/l (P?=?0��005)]. Even though changes in creatinine levels seemed to be affected by the rate of LIC changes, this correlation did not reach statistical significance (P?=?0��087). Cystatin C levels did not change significantly from baseline during treatment [mean?��?SD; 0��79?��?0��18?mg/l at baseline vs. 0��79?��?0��18?mg/l at 12?months vs. 0��8?��?0��18?mg/l at 24?months (P?>?0��05)]. Similar changes were noted with the creatinine clearance, as estimated by the Cockcroft-Gault formula (mean?��?SD; 2��1?��?0��41?ml/s at baseline vs. 2��07?��?0��44?ml/s at 12?months vs. 1��81?��?0��34?ml/s at 24?months). Creatinine clearance levels decreased significantly only after 2?years of treatment. None of the patients reached abnormal levels of creatinine clearance or creatinine levels above the ULN. A significant decrease in transaminase levels was noted during both the first (P?=?0��005) and second #links# year of treatment (P?=?0��005). Mean?��?SD ALT levels decreased from 50��5?�� 20��4?��/l at baseline to 29��9?��?14��0?��/l at 12?months and 20��0?��?9��5?��/l at 24?months. AST levels decreased from 42��8?��?13��5?��/l at baseline to 30��8?��?10��7?��/l at 12?months and 25��9?��?7��2?��/l at 24?months. Significant reductions in iron burden, as assessed by serum ferritin levels and LIC, were achieved with deferasirox therapy over 24?months in this non-transfused population of patients with thalassaemia intermedia, expanding on other previously reported observations over 12?months (Voskaridou et?al, 2010). The rate of improvement was faster in the first 12?months compared with the later 12?months, suggesting that iron chelation efficiency was more pronounced when iron overload was greater #links# in these patients. Many patients completing 24?months of therapy had reached more acceptable levels of iron burden with serum ferritin levels of <500?��g/l and LIC of <3?mg?Fe/g dw. Cardiac siderosis was not observed in this patient group and no evidence of cardiac iron accumulation or reduced cardiac function was seen over the course of the study. This observation confirms findings from other institutes (Origa et?al, 2008; Roghi et?al, 2010). Relatively low deferasirox doses of 10�C20?mg/kg/d were used in this study and were sufficient to reduce iron burden even in severely iron-overload patients, possibly because patients were receiving few or no transfusions.</p>